[转载]vim常用命令

原文链接:Add㊣™~

Vim 是从 vi 发展出来的一个文本编辑器。代码补完、编译及错误跳转等方便编程的功能特别丰富,在程序员中被广泛使用。和 Emacs 并列成为类 Unix 系统用户最喜欢的编辑器。这里收录了130+程序员必备的 vim 命令,帮助你提高开发效率。
目录
Contents
 1.  基本命令
 2.  在文件中移动
 3.  剪切、拷贝和粘贴
 4.  搜索
 5.  替换
 6.  大小写
 7.  读写文件
 8.  文件浏览器
 9.  和 Unix 系统交互
 10.  对齐
 11.  选项卡/窗口
 12.  分屏显示
 13.  自动完成
 14.  标记
 15.  缩写
 16.  文本缩进
 17.  代码高亮

1. 基本命令

命令 功能
:e filename Open filename for edition
:w Save file
:q Exit Vim
:q! Quit without saving
😡 Write file (if changes has been made) and exit
:sav filename Saves file as filename
. Repeats the last change made in normal mode
5. Repeats 5 times the last change made in normal mode

2. 在文件中移动

命令 功能
k or Up Arrow move the cursor up one line
j or Down Arrow move the cursor down one line
e move the cursor to the end of the word
b move the cursor to the begining of the word
0 move the cursor to the begining of the line
G move the cursor to the end of the file
gg move the cursor to the begining of the file
L move the cursor to the bottom of the screen
:59 move cursor to line 59. Replace 59 by the desired line number.
20
% Move cursor to matching parenthesis
[[ Jump to function start
[{ Jump to block start

3. 剪切、拷贝和粘贴

命令 功能
y Copy the selected text to clipboard
p Paste clipboard contents
dd Cut current line
yy Copy current line
y$ Copy to end of line
D Cut to end of line

4. 搜索

命令 功能
/word Search word from top to bottom
?word Search word from bottom to top
* Search the word under cursor
/\cstring Search STRING or string, case insensitive
/jo[ha]n Search john or joan
/\< the Search the, theatre or then
/the> Search the or breathe
/\< the> Search the
/\< ¦.> Search all words of 4 letters
/\/ Search fred but not alfred or frederick
/fred|joe Search fred or joe
/\<\d\d\d\d> Search exactly 4 digits
/^\n{3} Find 3 empty lines
:bufdo /searchstr/ Search in all open files
bufdo %s/something/somethingelse/g Search something in all the open buffers and replace it with somethingelse

5. 替换

命令 功能
:%s/old/new/g Replace all occurences of old by new in file
:%s/onward/forward/gi Replace onward by forward, case unsensitive
:%s/old/new/gc Replace all occurences with confirmation
:2,35s/old/new/g Replace all occurences between lines 2 and 35
:5,$s/old/new/g Replace all occurences from line 5 to EOF
:%s/^/hello/g Replace the begining of each line by hello
:%s/$/Harry/g Replace the end of each line by Harry
:%s/onward/forward/gi Replace onward by forward, case unsensitive
:%s/ *$//g Delete all white spaces
:g/string/d Delete all lines containing string
:v/string/d Delete all lines containing which didn’t contain string
:s/Bill/Steve/ Replace the first occurence of Bill by Steve in current line
:s/Bill/Steve/g Replace Bill by Steve in current line
:%s/Bill/Steve/g Replace Bill by Steve in all the file
:%s/^M//g Delete DOS carriage returns (^M)
:%s/\r/\r/g Transform DOS carriage returns in returns
:%s#<[^>]+>##g Delete HTML tags but keeps text
:%s/^(.*)\n\1$/\1/ Delete lines which appears twice
Ctrl+a Increment number under the cursor
Ctrl+x Decrement number under cursor
ggVGg? Change text to Rot13

6. 大小写

命令 功能
Vu Lowercase line
VU Uppercase line
g~~ Invert case
vEU Switch word to uppercase
vE~ Modify word case
ggguG Set all text to lowercase
gggUG Set all text to uppercase
:set ignorecase Ignore case in searches
:set smartcase Ignore case in searches excepted if an uppercase letter is used
:%s/\<./\u&/g Sets first letter of each word to uppercase
:%s/\<./\l&/g Sets first letter of each word to lowercase
:%s/.*/\u& Sets first letter of each line to uppercase
:%s/.*/\l& Sets first letter of each line to lowercase

7. 读写文件

命令 功能
:1,10 w outfile Saves lines 1 to 10 in outfile
:1,10 w >> outfile Appends lines 1 to 10 to outfile
:r infile Insert the content of infile
:23r infile Insert the content of infile under line 23

8. 文件浏览器

命令 功能
:e . Open integrated file explorer
:Sex Split window and open integrated file explorer
:Sex! Same as :Sex but split window vertically
:browse e Graphical file explorer
:ls List buffers
:cd .. Move to parent directory
:args List files
:args *.php Open file list
:grep expression *.php Returns a list of .php files contening expression
gf Open file name under cursor

9. 和 Unix 系统交互

命令 功能
:!pwd Execute the pwd unix command, then returns to Vi
!!pwd Execute the pwd unix command and insert output in file
:sh Temporary returns to Unix
$exit Retourns to Vi

10. 对齐

命令 功能
:%!fmt Align all lines
!}fmt Align all lines at the current position
5!!fmt Align the next 5 lines

11. 选项卡/窗口

命令 功能
:tabnew Creates a new tab
gt Show next tab
:tabfirst Show first tab
:tablast Show last tab
:tabm n(position) Rearrange tabs
:tabdo %s/foo/bar/g Execute a command in all tabs
:tab ball Puts all open files in tabs
:new abc.txt Edit abc.txt in new window

12. 分屏显示

命令 功能
:e filename Edit filename in current window
:split filename Split the window and open filename
ctrl-w up arrow Puts cursor in top window
ctrl-w ctrl-w Puts cursor in next window
ctrl-w_ Maximize current window vertically
ctrl-w
ctrl-w= Gives the same size to all windows
10 ctrl-w+ Add 10 lines to current window
:vsplit file Split window vertically
:sview file Same as :split in readonly mode
:hide Close current window
:­nly Close all windows, excepted current
:b 2 Open #2 in this window

13. 自动完成

命令 功能
Ctrl+n Ctrl+p (in insert mode) Complete word
Ctrl+x Ctrl+l Complete line
:set dictionary=dict Define dict as a dictionnary
Ctrl+x Ctrl+k Complete with dictionnary

14. 标记

命令 功能
m {a-z} Marks current position as {a-z}
’ {a-z} Move to position {a-z}
Move to previous position

15. 缩写

命令 功能
:ab mail [email protected] Define mail as abbreviation of [email protected]

16. 文本缩进

命令 功能
:set autoindent Turn on auto-indent
:set smartindent Turn on intelligent auto-indent
:set shiftwidth=4 Defines 4 spaces as indent size
ctrl-t, ctrl-d Indent/un-indent in insert mode
>> Indent
<< Un-indent
=% Indent the code between parenthesis
1GVG= Indent the whole file

17. 代码高亮

命令 功能
:syntax on Turn on syntax highlighting
:syntax off Turn off syntax highlighting
:set syntax=perl Force syntax highlighting

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One Comment

  1. vim 是个好东西。以前见过有人把这些命令做成了个pdf的卡片,跟这个帖子内容差不多,打出来放在手边很方便。

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